Painting of a Monk by Ming Dynasty Master Artist Wu Wei (1459-1508)

明朝大畫家吳偉(1459-1508) 人物畫

 

Wu Wei ( 1459~ 1509 )

His " zi " is Ciyong ( second elder ) and his "hao " is Xiaoxian ( Little Immortal ). His father died when he was young. He was poor ( He has been a servant begore ) but he loved painting. He became famous when he was seventeen in Nanjing. He has been sent to the courts and work for two times. Emperor Zhu Jianshen liked and trusted him, and gave him a "best scholar of art" stamp ( Chinese artists stamp on their artworks). Nevertheless, he liked to drink and he was frank. He despised other officials as if they were slaves and servants. Those officials accused and he left unwillingly. In 1506, Zhen Houzhao became the emperor and sent him to the court again. However, he was drunk and died.

Wu Wei's painting is similar to that of Dai Jin and " Ma Xia", but his paintings are more untrammeled, like dragons and snakes, and as quick as lightning. It makes the paintings "energetic". This is a significant special feature of his paintings. He has a style of delicacy other than this in his figure paintings. Some other artists have a similar style that of him. So the Jiaxia denomination developed.

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Wu Wei

A native of Wuchang,HuBei province,was a painter of the Ming dynasty.His style name were Shiying and Ciweng,sobriquets were Lufu and Xiaoxian.He excelled in painting human figures and landscapes,in a strong,fluent and uninhibited style.He created his fame as a painter in the Ming dynasty,called the pioneer of "The Jiang Xia Style",having lots of students.

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吳偉(1459-1508)

是繼戴進而起的"浙派"主將,與其傳人亦有"江夏派"之稱。字士英、次翁,號小仙,江夏(江西武昌)人。成化、弘治時曾兩次被召入宮,授錦衣鎮撓,賜"畫狀元"印,不久均辭歸南京。工山水,人物,山水承馬夏傳統,受戴進影晌,更見粗簡奔放。人物有工筆、白描一路,師李公麟,水墨粗筆一路來自梁楷。

吳偉多種畫風均有代表作。山水畫如《溪山漁艇圖軸》《長江萬里圖卷》《壩橋風雪圖軸》均藏北京故宮博物院,都用粗筆寫意法,筆墨雄勁酣暢,縱橫揮洒,極富雄闊氣勢。人物畫白描精品有《鐵笛圖卷>藏上海博物館、《問津圖卷》《歌舞圖軸》《武陵春圖卷》均藏北京故宮博物院等,水墨粗筆則有《柳下讀書圖軸》藏北京故宮博物院、《仙女圖軸》藏上海博物館、《雪窗讀書圖軸》藏山東省博物館等。

"浙派"傳人很多,主要追蹤吳偉畫風,變為簡率狂放,如張路、蔣嵩、汪肇、鄭文林、朱邦、史文等,其中張路水平較高,汪肇的花鳥畫饒有新意。

"浙派"繪畫因主宗南宋"院體",故也常常被冒充為馬、夏等人宋畫。如吳偉《洗兵圖卷》藏廣東省博物館,拖尾款署明是"湖湘小仙吳偉為Y蘊真黃公",因白描畫法近李公麟,就有人誤定為李畫; 明人《觀瀑圖軸》藏北京故宮博物院,近南宋"院體"而實屬"浙派"典型風格,卻添上偽款"馬麟",冒充宋畫; 鍾欽禮《舉杯玩月圖軸》,明明有款"欽禮",卻硬定為馬遠之作。其實,浙派"與南宋畫是較易區分的,筆墨上前者單薄草率,后者堅實瑾嚴,功力和時代氣息都不同;材質上"浙派"用絹比較粗糙,張路以后諸家之絹,紋理更是疏落,如N紗,墨色也很淡,主要靠后面命紙襯托才顯墨色,而宋絹則質地細密,尤其宮廷"院體"畫用絹,質地極精,遠非明絹可比。

"浙派"名家戴進、吳偉的傳世作中,也有不少偽品,多屬傳人之作,也有后世仿本。如傳為戴進的《升平村樂圖卷》《海水旭日圖卷》《浙江名勝圖卷》均藏北京故宮博物院均屬贗本,畫法粗俗,風格亦不類。吳偉的《松陰觀瀑圖軸》《柳橋高士圖軸》均藏北京故宮博物院,是明人仿本。

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吳偉(14591508

字士英,又字次翁,號小仙,江夏(今武昌)人。少年時生活孤苦,流落于南京,為錢昕收養,後為當時王公貴胄所賞識,聲名日起。成化、弘治時,以善畫,先後兩次被召入宮,授錦衣鎮撫,賜"畫狀元"印。不久,辭歸南京。正德初,再次被召見,因飲酒過量,未及上路便醉死南京。吳偉擅山水、人物,面貌有粗筆和工筆兩者之長,早期白描師李公麟,粗筆法梁楷。山水遠師馬、夏,近受浙派戴進影響,因其粗細兼備,水墨淋漓的風格被稱為"江夏派"。善畫大屏巨幛,當時南京寺觀壁畫多出於其手筆。早期人物代表作是上海博物館藏的《鐵笛圖》卷、故宮博物院藏《問津圖》卷、《歌舞圖》軸,廣東省博物館藏《洗兵圖》卷。中年時粗筆人物山水畫有《柳陰讀書圖》軸、《灞橋風雪圖》軸及《長江萬里圖》長卷、《漁樂圖》軸,後兩圖反映了他的粗筆寫意山水的雄偉氣勢。吳偉畫風在成化、弘治年間影響很大,追隨他的畫家有張路、蔣嵩、汪肇、鄭文林、朱邦、史文等,都是職業畫家,以張路的成就最為突出。

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